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The Dutch trade on Hirado (also called Firando) was not very profitable during the first years, because the quantity of goods imported was too small. The efforts of both the English and the Dutch to capture the richly-laden Portuguese carracks and Chinese junks, sailing from and to Nagasaki, led to a sharp reprimand of the Japanese Government in 1621.
In 1613 the English also established a factory on the island, wich would remain in being till 1623. The Shogunal Government, on the other hand, became more and more opposed to the Portuguese, because of their missionary activity.
The Dutch factory remained here until theclosing-down in 1860. of Japan were involved in a struggle for power, from which in 1600 Ieyasu, of the House of Tokugawa, emerged victorious after the battle of Sekigahara.
From 1639 to 1854 the Dutch were the only Europeans permitted to enter japan. He recieved the title 'Shogun' from the Emperor and made Edo (Dutch:"Jedo"; the later Tokyo) his capital.
In accordance with the Dutch-English treaty of June 2nd, 1619, coöperation existed between the two factories, wich is manifested in the archive by resolutions of the combined ship's Councils and both Chiefs. The much-used term 'trade-passport' for these documents is thus - strictly taken - incorrect. The Shogun believed that the existing order in Japan was endangered by the expanding Christian religion.
Although the Shogun in 1617 restricted the overseas trade to the harbours of Nagasaki and Hirado, the Dutch received a new act of safe-conduct on their journey to the Shogunal Court of that year, wich passport guaranteed them free entrance in all Japanese ports. After the revolt of Japanese Christians on the promontory of Shimabara (east of Nagasaki) in 16 the Portuguese were duly expelled from the Empire (1639), the Dutch had to demolish their newly-built wharehouse on Hirado (1640) and in 1641 the removal of the factory to Deshima was ordered.
Therefore the Governors-General at Batavia mostly used Chinese language in their letters to the Shogun, the Imperial Council or the Nagasaki Governors.
In this way there was greater certainty that the contents would reach their destination in the original form and meaning, not being mistranslated by the interpreters.
Theinterpreters combined the jobs of linguist, commercial agent and spy".
The Portuguese had been confined on this artificially constructed islet in the harbour of Nagisaki from 1636 to 1639.